How to mix an atmospheric model with "radial blur" to achieve outdoor shafts of light ? Well, draw your dome with your atmospheric shader, write (max(MiePhase) * ShaftsPower) to alpha value of backbuffer. Copy backbuffer's alpha to a smaller render target, use radial blur with projected sun 's position as center even if it's outside screen. Subtract radial blur's alpha from original rendertarget's alpha. Mix rendertarget with backbuffer to illuminate or darken, as you wish.
There is no artefacts when sun is behind viewer because the alpha map is done with the MiePhase function. If ShaftsPower is high enough, backbuffer's alpha values will be 1 even if the sun is behind viewer and it will causes artifacts. Using other functions can give smoother results
like log2( max(MiePhase) * 2500.0f ).
For the screenshots, i used log2( max(MiePhase) * 2500.0f ), 16 samples for radial blur, 256x256 rendertargets and a bloom effect( glow + highlight ). it's not 100% perfect yet.